Archives For quantum mechanics

Can QM be correct? Like any other theory, it will be bound to fail.

I have been thinking about frame dragging and faster than light travel for a few days, and then about the fact that quantum collapse seems to take place ‘instantly’ (faster than light).

So then I read about the photon size for a 1MHz radio wave which is 300 metres – quite large.

So this huge wave has to refract as a wave and yet somehow instantly collapse into a very small area to be absorbed? Instantly? Insanity!

Wild thought: Frame dragging faster than light and gravitational shock waves to the rescue!

Answer: Collapse is a shockwave that causes frame dragging, allowing for ‘instant’ effects to happen (also EPR).

Frame dragging can in principle be used to travel faster than the speed of light. This is a known scientific fact that is thought to be non possible in practice due to all sorts of limitations. Science fiction of course loves it.

So a soliton forms and sweeps energy out of the wave and into the reception antenna.

If we could control this soliton collapse – we could perhaps harness it to perform faster than light communication and travel.

The soliton ‘shock wave’ is composed of gravity (as is light and everything else). It would have to have some very specific configuration.

Frame Dragging

Frame dragging occurs with linear effects too. My thought experiment on this is through a Mach – like view point. If you are inside at the middle of a very long pipe, which starts to accelerate, you will be dragged along. If the pipe stops at some velocity, you will approach that velocity eventually.

So space couples not to mass but to matter. If it just coupled to mass, you would not be able to tell if your neutron rope was moving or not. It couples instead to the actual bits of matter.

 

What about circularly polarized gravitational waves – timed so that the squished part is always in front and the expansion is behind the particle? So that’s 90 degrees from direction of travel of the waves – but perhaps they can be entrained as a soliton solution. Soliton

 

 

 

 

Lets look at an early universe model made entirely of classical General Relativity. Multiply connected, very lumpy, with energy across huge bandwidths.

Lots of energy – some 10^80 nucleons worth, all in some region with small finite volume. How would this smooth itself out as time evolves?

Are fundamental particles at their core an echo of the conditions at the big bang? In other words the density of energy in g/cm^3 of the core of an electron is perhaps the same energy density at which electrons were formed.

Crazy thought:

I think that electrons are much much smaller than quarks, and as such formed earlier in the big bang.  This was the start of inflation. The universe consisted of electrons + other chaotic GR mess. So we have incredible expansion as the electrons repel each other ferociously.

Then as time passed, and the universe approached the meter size, quarks and nucleons organized to quench the repulsion.

According to the standard model of inflation, (see below) that means that electrons are about 10^-77 m across while quarks are larger, more like 10^-27 meter.  (not sure I did the math right?)

So inflation is a phenomenon of the creation of charge in the Universe.

Reading a little on this – its at odds with the current theory (no doubt !) – in that the current theory has inflation coming when the strong nuclear force is separating out. But perhaps that’s another way to look at it – there are no forces other than random chaotic ones, and electrons give quarks a reason to be created – to soak up the energy of ( or  quench)  the inflation.

Wikipedia

the large potential energy of the inflaton field decays into particles and fills the Universe with Standard Model particles

– electrons and quarks apply brakes to inflation as they condense.

-cosmological constant is bound up spring like effect of noisy GR wave energy piled to the limit of curvature. Once we start to drop density, density drops faster and faster as GR is non linear, so there is less to keep it together. This is the origin of the cosmological constant, which powers inflation:

Wikipedia

This steady-state exponentially expanding spacetime is called a de Sitter space, and to sustain it there must be a cosmological constant, a vacuum energy proportional to \Lambda everywhere. In this case, the equation of state is \! p=-\rho. The physical conditions from one moment to the next are stable: the rate of expansion, called the Hubble parameter, is nearly constant, and the scale factor of the Universe is proportional to e^{Ht}. Inflation is often called a period of accelerated expansion because the distance between two fixed observers is increasing exponentially (i.e. at an accelerating rate as they move apart), while \Lambda can stay approximately constant (see deceleration parameter).

 

The basic process of inflation consists of three steps:
  1. Prior to the expansion period, the inflaton field was at a higher-energy state.
  2. Random quantum fluctuations triggered a phase transition whereby the inflaton field released its potential energy as matter and radiation as it settled to its lowest-energy state.
  3. This action generated a repulsive force that drove the portion of the Universe that is observable to us today to expand from approximately 10−50 metres in radius at 10−35 seconds to almost 1 metre in radius at 10−34 seconds.

Compton Frequency Mass Exchange…

de Broglie

His original conception, his “double-solution theory” (de Broglie 1956), involved two waves, a real pilot wave centered on the particle and the statistical wave predicted by standard quantum theory. He asserted that quantum mechanics was intrinsically relativistic and proposed that the pilot wave originates in internal particle oscillations at the Compton frequency , ωc =mc2/h at which rest mass energy is exchanged with wave energy. He proposed that the guiding wave field evolves according to the Klein-Gordon equation and consists of a monochromatic wave field in the particle’s frame...[Bush 2015]

Click to access aflb124p001.pdf

 

 

Why not emergent QED?

My thesis is that electro magnetic effects along with quantum behaviour emerge from large amplitude GR monopole wave interaction in the high memory regime.

So its basically a recipe for QED.

What is the biggest problem in the accepted QED? The renormalization problem. So lets look at how to solve it with my emergent sonon like gravity system.

 

The answer from physical theory is a resounding yes, but look at some first experiments along these lines:

Bosons

Bosons obey boson statistics – which means they are not huge players in Quantum interactions. You can jam as many as you like into one state. In other words you can pile trillions of photons up in one place, they will all ignore each other.

Fermions

Fermions are nice quantum particles. They don’t pile up on the nucleus and instead support the existence of matter with the pauli exclusion principle. All quantum level determining experiments are done with charged fermions. But are there uncharged fermions? (Yes – Neutrinos)

Experiments that might show QM effects on non charged particles

Photon experiments. Experiments with light are pretty boring. Photons are bosons, or put another way, they simply do not interact with one another. The existence of the photon is always determined by an interaction with a charged particle. So no way to do a purely photonic QM experiment, I would think.

Neutrons: Uncharged and fermonic so it seems – but in reality Neutrons are composite particles made of charged quarks. There are no uncharged quarks.  So any experiment on QM that uses any charged fermion can’t be included.

Neutrinos: Well here we have an uncharged fermion, so that would seem to rule that there are quantum effects on non – charged particles. But of course neutrino experiments are very primitive and only concern neutrino – charged particle interactions. Its wildly impossible right now to do an experiment where neutrinos are say dropped into some potential well and we detect the pauli exclusion principle on them.

Gravitons and other bosons fall into the uncharged category for the most part, W bosons sticking in this regard. But I would bet that the QM nature of W+ interaction has not been experimentally studied.

I don’t know why the physics community has not spent more time on this. QM effects and charge seem to be locked together. A hypothetical all Boson universe would not need to use QM.

Do Bosons Feel Quantum Mechanics?

More on this hypothetical bosonic universe. If we construct one where all fermions are missing, but the laws of physics are the same, would we need QM at all?

I start with a screen grab from the video below. Yves Couder and friends are clearly looking at hidden variable theories:

Screen Shot 2014-03-10 at 8.40.20 AM

Screen Shot 2014-03-09 at 6.46.17 PM

Here is a 3 minute movie with the above slide:

The pilot-wave dynamics of walking droplets

Here is a paper about eigenstates, etc… Self-organization into quantized eigenstates of a classical wave driven particle  (Stéphane Perrard1, Matthieu Labousse, Marc Miskin, Emmanuel Fort, and Yves Couder).

Compare that with my hastily written post.

See also (pointed out by  Warren Huelsnitz) :

 “Why bouncing droplets are a pretty good model of quantum mechanics

Yves Couder . Explains Wave/Particle Duality via Silicon Drop

“Couder could not believe what he was seeing”.

Here it was sort of a eureka moment at home on a Sunday afternoon.

Here is a link to the whole show.(45 mins)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KByhu3HKy5s

Valentini:

Valentini (along with me) thinks that QM is wrong, in that its not the ‘final layer’. His de Broglie arguments are powerful and hit close to home for me. I have read most of David Bohm’s papers and books since discovering him as a 4th year undergrad back in the 80s. Bohm’s ideas launched mine. Note that much of physics is built on the assumption that with QM somehow ‘this time its different’ – that any future theory will need to be QM compliant or it is wrong. As if QM was somehow as certain as the (mathematical and hence solid) 2nd Law or something. This leaves no room for argument or dissent. Perfect conditions for a paradigm change!

http://www.perimeterinstitute.ca/search/node/valentini

EG:

This is the presentation that outlines things as he sees them. I see things that way too, although I am of the opinion that the pilot waves are GR ripples.

http://streamer.perimeterinstitute.ca/Flash/3f521d41-f0a9-4e47-a8c7-e1fd3a4c63c8/viewer.html

Is Quantum Mechanics Tried, True, wildly Successful, and Wrong?

Quantum Theory at the Crossroads
Reconsidering the 1927 Solvay Conference

A relaxing read:

Not even wrong. Why does nobody like pilot-wave theory?

“De Broglie’s law of motion for particles is very simple. At any time, the momentum is perpendicular to the wave crests (or lines of constant phase), and is proportionally larger if the wave crests are closer together. Mathematically, the momentum of a particle is given by the gradient (with respect to that particle’s co-ordinates) of the phase of the total wavefunction. This is a law of motion for velocity, quite unlike Newton’s law of motion for acceleration. “

Antony Valentini, Beyond the Quantum

If QM runs as wiggles in GR, we have a possible way to get collapse, and have a linear QM theory that breaks down over long times or with too many signals in one place.

In other words:

Each QM state vector is represented NOT only as a vector in a Hibert Space, but are really ‘real’  arrangements of (usually small scale) GR waves.

Since GR waves behave linearly over a large range of frequencies and amplitudes, these waves do not interact, and can be represented well as they are now in QM – by a Hilbert Space.

Collapse occurs when this linearity is compromised.

Thus there is a limit to entanglement and Quantum computing. The collapse of the wave function is a physical happening independent of observers. It occurs when these waves self – interact.

Indeed – with a theory where the QM states can only interact in a linear fashion, we have absurdities such as infinite computing power combined with massive Hilbert Spaces.

This should be quantifiable. In other words the collapse can be simulated on a computer system without Bohr like handwaving or the Many World’s trillions of universes per second per cubic cm coming into existence to avoid a true collapse (ok I know its more than trillions per second…).

To estimate the conditions for collapse: Take the likely amplitude of a single quantum wave (by looking at this mass – difference theory that I have for instance) and then see how many can pile into the same place before non-linear interference occurs – which would start a collapse. So collapse occurs when a simple isolated system interferes with a system with many more moving parts – an observation.

Entanglement/EPR/Bell outside the light cone is handled by non-local topology “worm – holes” in GR.

-Tom

How is that even a question?

Previous posts have all not mentioned quantum effects at all. That’s the point – we are building physics from General Relativity, so QM must be a consequence of the theory, right?

Here are some thoughts:

QM seems to not like even special relativity much at all. It is a Newtonian world view theory that has been modified to work in special relativity for the most part, and in General Relativity not at all.

There are obvious holes in QM – the most glaring of which is the perfect linearity and infinitely expandable wave function. Steven Weinberg has posted a paper about a class of QM theories that solve this problem. In essence, the solution is to say that the state vector degrades over time, so that hugely complex, timeless state vectors actually self collapse due to some mechanism. (Please read his version for his views, as my comment are from my point of view.)

If one were to look for a more physical model of QM, something along the lines of Bohm’s hidden variables, then what would we need:

Some sort of varying field that supplies ‘randomness’:

  • This is courtesy of the monopole field discussed in previous posts about the proton and the electron.

Some sort of  reason for the electron to not spiral into the proton:

  • Think De Broglie waves –  a ‘macroscopic’ (in comparison to the monopole field) wave interaction. still these waves ‘matter waves’ are closely tied to the waves that control the electromagnetic field.
  • Put another way – there is room for many forces in the GR framework, since dissimilar forces ignore each other for the most part.
  • Another way of thinking about how you talk about multidimensional information waves (hilbert spaces of millions of dimensions for example), is to note that as long as there is a reasonable mechanism for keeping these information channels separate, then there is a way to do it all with a meta field – GR.

Quantum field theory:

  • This monopole field is calculable and finite, unlike the quantum field theories of today, which are off by a factor of 10100 when trying to calculate energy densities, etc.

History has showed us that all physical theories eventually fail. The failure is always a complete failure in terms of some abstract perfectionist viewpoint, but in reality, the failure only amounts to small corrections. Take for instance gravity. Newton’s theory is absurd – gravity travels instantly, etc. But it is also simple and powerful, it predictions working well enough to put people on the Moon.

Quantum Mechanics, it would seem, has a lot of physicists claiming that ‘this time is different’ – that QM is ‘right’. Nature does play dice. There are certain details of it yet to be worked out, like how to apply it to fully generalized curvy spacetimes, etc.

Lets look at what would happen if it were wrong. Or rather, lets look at one way that it could be wrong.

QM predicts that there are chances for every event happening. I mean in the following way – there is a certain probability for an electron (say) to penetrate some sort of barrier (quantum tunneling). As the barrier is made higher and or wider, the probability of tunneling goes down according to a well defined formula: (see for example this wikipedia article). Now, the formulas for the tunneling probability do not ‘top out’ – there is a really, really tiny chance that even a slowly moving electron could make it through a concrete wall. What if this is wrong? What if there is a limit as to the size of the barrier? Or put another way – what if there is a limit to probability? Another way to look at this is to say that there is a upper limit on the half life of a compound. Of course, just as Newton’s theory holds extremely well for most physics, it may be hard to notice that there is not an unlimited amount of ‘quantum wiggle’ to ‘push’ particles through extremely high barriers.

Steven Weinberg has posted a paper about a class of theories that try to solve the measurement problem in QM by having QM fail. (It fails a little at a time, so we need big messy physics to have the wave collapse). I agree fully with his idea – that we have to modify QM to solve the measurement problem.