Archives For physics

This is obviously straight from the hip, although I have been thinking about it for a while. ΛCDM (Lambda cold dark matter) or Lambda-CDM has a lot of problems, but MOND does too. See for example Hossenfelders latest video

So my admittedly personal view is that matter cannot exist on its own. One hydrogen molecule will start to sleep if it’s not near other atoms. How near? The thought is that dark matter densities can tell us.


Matter cannot exist on its own, isolated. It needs a certain density of quantum waves or energy to bathe in. Otherwise the entire mechanism of both electromagnetism, quantum mechanics (and maybe nuclear forces) simply dies, the interactive particles (quarks and electrons) that form matter relax into sleeping versions of themselves, likely with virtually all of the mass intact. When in the presence of normal matter or the density of sleeping matter goes up to maybe something like an extremely diffuse gas cloud, the matter wakes up, and starts to take part in electromagnetic interactions. Indeed, the nuclear forces of this sleepy matter do not have to sleep, as we can’t see sleeping nucleons. Perhaps just the EM interaction drops off. This article explores some predictions and consequences of the Sleepy Matter Model.


Dark matter is sleepy matter, and dark energy is the ‘quantum energy’ – the dark energy is released when matter ‘goes to sleep’.

Dark matter is just plain matter, but it has ‘spun down’ due to being lonely. This effect happens at about the maximum density of dark matter ever found, or about the density of the most diffuse clouds of gas ever found (which are about equal).

Galaxy Curves – ‘only’ the core is a problem for Dark Matter

Dark Matter Problems

There are a number of problems with the ΛCDM model (Lambda cold dark matter).

I will refer to as normal dark matter as Dark Matter.

Wikipedia is a good place to start for most of these problems. One can see the Bullet cluster below, which is both a problem and a victory for Dark Matter. That’s where we sit.

Dark Matter ProblemProblemSleepy Matter solution
Satellite galaxiesModels of DM predict lots of Satellite galaxies. More are being found, but they tend to be equatorial to the galaxy, which is another problem.Sleepy matter interacts with density rise on galactic plane and gets stuck there as the core of a satellite galaxy. Should be able to model this.
Baryonic Tully Fisher relationThe mass of a galaxy is correlated to the fourth power of the rotation velocity of the outermost stars. Why would Dark Matter, which ignores regular matter obey this rule?Sleepy matter wakes up when the density gets high, turning into normal matter. This normal matter interacts, limiting density, etc. There is only so much sleepy matter to fit in.

Should be able to model this.
Renzo’s rule“For any feature in the luminosity profile there is a corresponding feature in the rotation curve and vice versa.”This is simple with sleepy matter. Stars are born when sleepy matter wakes up, condenses.
Bullet ClusterGalactic velocities are too high.The braking friction power of dark matter is lost as the sleeping matter can’t get near luminous matter to put the brakes on.
Core-CuspNo dark matter found (via gravitational searches) in the cores of galaxies. The sleepy matter comes in, get woken up, interacts, and thus does not sink into the centre.
Why Dark MatterNo reason for it, its just another set of parameters. Sleepy matter is an experimental prediction of both matter and fields arising from the Einstein’s ether, and thus is predicted.
Dark matter problems

Dark matter victories

Any new solution to the dark matter problem would hopefully not touch the success of the dark matter paradigm

Dark Matter VictoryExplanationSleepy matter comment
Galaxy ClustersThe virial theorem says galactic clusters have dark matter holding them together. Lots of it. Not a problem, since this intergalactic sleepy matter behaves just like dark matter.
Einstein rings, gravitational lensingThe pretty pictures of Einstein rings, carefully measured, show much more mass around a galaxy than is in it that we can see.Not a problem, as the sleepy matter is at low densities when the entire halo is taken into account.
Early universe 2nd peak and all that. The explanations of the CMB multipole work well with Dark Matter. One might think that at early universe times, all the matter was awake, which would not be good for the model, but on the other hand, BBN troubles in the early U combined with a much different interaction scheme for matter and dark energy would change things.

A 20 parameter LCDM cosmological model with 1000 PhDs and tens of thousands of papers will fit anything.
Bullet ClusterThe dark matter from two colliding galaxies sailed right through each other. The gravitational field shows 1) lots of dark matter and 2) It did not interact like the regular stuff to the collision. Sleeping matter can run right through each other, as long as the critical density is missed. So one gets both the correct density profile and lots of star formation, etc.
Dark Matter success stories

Sleepy matter predictions

Here are some predictions for sleepy matter. Some of the tests can be done today with ‘only’ a literature search and some graphing tools. Others require labs that likely can’t be built on earth or in the near future.

Sleepy matter can’t be detected in current experiments.The sleeping matter is ~all woken up by the time it gets to a lab on earth.More negative results looking for WIMPs, Axions, etc etc. So far 30 years of bright people have looked for dark matter, mostly by going deep into the earth.
Sleepy matter might be detectable in a new kind of experiment.Perhaps we can simply watch matter fall apart.Maybe a (deep space?) lab with a large, cold dark room can make a rarefied gas sleep. Could be detected by lighting up a gas at some emission line as it’s pumped down in pressure. Maybe the matter will start to sleep as the pressure drops. Make a graph of pressure as measured by some direct method, and pressure measured by the emission of the atoms in the gas on excitation pulses at one per hour.
Clouds of dark matter have a maximum density.Maybe ordinary matter gas clouds have a minimum observed density already?Extensive literature search for gas densities measured around our galaxy, combines with literature search for dark matter densities. Do the distributions overlap? I am thinking they don’t overlap, to within the statistics of astronomy.
Sleepy matter on waking up might have some emissionPerhaps on waking up/sleeping the spinup produces some sort of weak photon emission, maybe in infrared or radio, or even higher frequencies. Unexplained sky maps showing emission of photons in at places where the dark matter density is high.
Sleepy matter going to sleep raises the dark energy level.Planck – Supernovae Hubble tension.

The effect may be subtle, but overall it would seem that more matter is becoming sleepy than the other way around. This releases energy into space. The energy was bottled up as some part of matter, then it gets released. Perhaps most of the dark energy came from matter going to sleep, in which case we would need a huge mass/energy drop of like 90% for sleepy matter. But maybe the sleepy matter energy exchange is only a small part of the dark energy story.
Sleepy matter predictions

Sleepy Matter thoughts

Is Sleepy Matter worthwhile? I like it, but it will take some more effort to put it into the ‘this contributes’ category. I have looked for papers on the density of DM vs the density of gas clouds, but I don’t think there are any. The gas cloud people and dark matter density people run in different circles.

I am going to try and dig up the references/papers I can find on dark matter and gas cloud density measurements.

Dark matter density tops out at about 10 GeV/cm^3 in the Milky way according to Figure 1 in

Determination of the local dark matter density in our Galaxy

M. Weber and W. de Boer

From the paper – density is about 10GeV per cubic cm.

Is dark matter any more dense anywhere else?

The dark matter density of the Universe

Also see this:

Unfolding the Laws of Star Formation: The Density Distribution of Molecular Clouds

  1. Jouni Kainulainen1,*
  2. Christoph Federrath2
  3. Thomas Henning1

Note this image:

Gas densities below 200 GeV/cc (ie 100 H2 atoms per cc) are not observed.


Note that I just of something: Say some sleepy matter condenses out, then gets moved away condensed into new stars, etc. There would be gas clouds lighter than the dark matter limit. – the Warm neutral gas is only 0.5 GeV/cc, ditto for ionized. Look at the temperatures of that rarefied stuff – 8000K !

How to make Dark Matter

October 20, 2013 — 2 Comments

I don’t divulge the recipe until later, lets start with the most undark matter we can find – CERNs protons.

CERN has proton – antiproton collisions going on at 7 TeV. There are collisions that generate up to a few TeV of photons.

Lets look at that from a viewpoint of classical physics, with some General Relativity added in the right place.

We have a few TeV of photons, these are generated in an extremely short period of time. We have two protons approaching and hitting (basically head on to get 2TeV of gammas). They are travelling at c. So that’s an interaction time of 2fm/3e8 m/s – 1.5 e-24 seconds.

So what happens gravitationally?

I have recently read a paper Monopole gravitational waves from relativistic fireballs driving gamma-ray bursts by Kutshera ( that talks about this effect for, well exploding stars.

We have in a small area a mass of 7 TeV, of which about half leaves via gammas, the rest is in ‘slower’ particles like those higgs bosons, etc. This drop in mass results in a monopole gravitational wave. How big:

The force of Gravity is usually determined by the masses of the objects involved. But gravity is a local phenomenon (Einstein’s vision, not Newtons), and the field is actually a gradient of the potential.

So we have a potential change from 7 TeV to 5 TeV as seen by an observer near the collision as 2 TeV of gammas go whizzing by in a time span of 10-24 secs. Lets take the observer to be just outside the interaction area, say 10 fm away.

The gradient of the potential changes as the mass changes, which means its time dependent. We need the gradient.

Look at the Gravitational potential  of the observer before and after the wave passes.

Before G(7 TeV)/10fm and after we have G(5 TeV)/10fm. So that’s an potential difference of G(2TeV)/10fm acting over a time of 1e-24 seconds, which means that we have a gradient of (some math. )SI units! Observer is a proton 10fm away,

I get 8.1×10-20 Watts – i.e. the observer proton sees its energy rise at a rate of 10-19 watts for 1e-24 seconds, it gets a boost in the away from the interaction, which raises its energy by a mere  5e-25eV.

Not much. But what I think is missing is that this sort of effect has to be looked at on a much smaller scale, and repeating, in that this monopole gravitational energy is coming in – then bouncing back out. The proton is thus an engine to this coherently at 1e40Hz or more, which makes other protons/electrons feel a force (they are bouncing this gravitational monopole radiation back and forth too) of the same size as the coulomb force. So this is the coloumb force. Electromagnetism as a phenomena of General Relativity. If you re-do the math with 10-47 or so seconds as the period then you start to see coulomb level forces at play. (Taking away accelerator energies ‘only’ adds a few zeros to the huge frequency requirement for mass exchange.)

The coloumb force rides above this – its a meta field ontop of this gravitationally built monopole system.

I think that electrons do this in a native, compact manner, likely using topology, while protons employ a complicated-ish ‘engine’ built of springs and struts made of GR that produce the same force as an electron. The strength of this force is determined by a feedback mechanism to balance that of the electrons.

Could dark matter be unlit(inactive/relaxed) protons? In other words protons that are not near an electron, and thus stop vibrating and being a charged particle. No near electron means no feedback means no charge. So perhaps looking for dark matter using a dense matter system like a block of germanium is bound to fail. We need to look using some sort of empty space experiment that gets to the vacuum conditions of interstellar (as we know dark matter exist on an interstellar scale).

An experiment might be to create a very hard vacuum starting with a hydrogen plasma, then as you pump down, look for some sort of indication that the charge of the remaining protons and electrons in the gas has gone down. You might look at the response of the p/e left in the chamber to photons – there will be less scattering as you pump down, but if the scattering falls off a cliff faster than your pumping rate you have made dark matter.

What is the distance at which this effect might happen at? In other words how far apart do electrons and protons have to be before the charge effect starts to stall? I am not talking about the range of photons – that’s infinite, but about the range of this effect – where will protons start to lose the signal from electrons, and calm down? 1m, 1micron? What is the density of gas in quiet parts of the galaxy? Intergalactic space is 1 atom/m3, I would say 1e6x this level is likely for some wastelands in the milky way. (we need dark matter in the milky way to get our velocity curves right!) So that’s 1 per cm3.

What’s the best vacuum you can make?

Ultra-high vacuum chambers, common in chemistry, physics, and engineering, operate below one trillionth (10−12) of atmospheric pressure (100 nPa), and can reach around 100 particles/cm

That’s about the right density. So has anyone ever measured laser scattering in such a chamber as a function of pressure? Corrected for pressure, we would get a horizontal line in a suitable graph. Boring stuff, it would seem, so likely not measured. The mean free path is 40km in these chambers.

Some problems solved by this ‘dark matter is matter gone dark’ hypothesis:

1) Early universe. It has been determined that the early universe must have had a mass that was much larger than the observed mass today. This is solved with dark matter, but that dark matter would have had to take part in things. If it were instead all just regular matter, there is no problem.

2) Early universe clumpiness: Its been really hard to come up with galaxies born so quickly. Yet they can be seen with telescopes. With all the matter in the early universe taking part, clumps are easier to make.

3) The lack of dark matter peaks at galactic cores. This one stumps the experts – physicists were sure that dark matter would accumulate at galactic cores, but it does not. If you have matter lighting up as it moves close to the core, then the radiation given off by this newly lit matter would keep things expanded, furthermore it is seen at the core, and so does not count as being dark. (

Early universe CMB

This is the way things are thought to work.

If all the matter was lit, then the He4/Li levels would be not what is observed. ==> Some kind of non interacting matter was needed.

The CMB is too smooth. Dark matter is needed to make galaxies:

Dark matter condenses at early epoch and forms potential wells, the baryonic matter flows into these wells and forms galaxies (White & Rees 1978). (Ref:

Can’t be done, it would seem, since gravity is spin 2.

Well, electromagnetism is spin 1, but we have tech gadgets and a billion transistors on one chip.

So can one construct a machine that behaves like a dipole?

Take a canonical dipole. Two radio antennas, both vertical, one transmitting, the other receiving. The question then is, can we make a mass (or more likely a Rube Goldberg system of masses) bob up and down by the action of another mass-system moving at some distance away? if we can, then we have constructed a ‘spin one’ field from gravity, in much the same way that one can build something that is more than its parts.

The underlying field would of course be spin 2, but the field interpreted from the motions of our mass systems would look like a covariant, fully geometric compliant spin 1 field. It would in fact be a spin 1 covariant field.

Contraptions and questions come to mind right away. How do normal gravitational waves radiate as the eccentricity of an orbit approaches 1? What about a similar structure but with say a small particle orbiting a slender rod along the long axis. Not looking for stable orbits here at all. Just a mechanism to transfer a dipole motion across empty space to another construction of masses.

It seems more than possible that such an arrangement exists.



The title about says it.

I have been thinking and reading a little about the electromagnetic potential and it gauge invariance lately. In simple, but absolutely correct terms, you can think of Gauge Invariance like this:

Electrons only respond to the slope of the voltage potential, and not the absolute value. So if you take any circuit, experiment, etc, planet, etc and add a million volts everywhere, no one will be able to tell, except people who look in from outside the circuit or planet.

This fact led physicists to renounce the potential as something real, and instead pronounce it as only a mathematical tool, useful for getting the field, which is the ‘real thing’. So in other words, ‘Voltage is not real’. Sure feels real to me when I get a shock from static or touching the wrong wire! But physics says its the potential difference that matters, and not the potential iteself. Point taken.

Then along comes the Aharonov-Bohm Effect (David Bohm is one of my heroes in physics). It describes an experiment where electrons can detect a change in the potential – where the changes result in no fields. In other words it seems that electrons can see this potential. To me, this is a sign that this potential is real. To others of course, its not.

Richard Feynman seemed to think more along the lines of the ‘potential is real’ camp.

So if its real, what gauge did nature choose? In other words what is the voltage of the universe? I of course don’t know, but if we assume that there is some real fixed gauge, then what could be the consequences?

1) No consequences for local experiments, etc.

2) Perhaps there are things on a larger scale that do arise from this permeating ‘potential’ everywhere. Could this potential (i.e. voltage) be real in the sense that it is made out of something? That is the crux. Its certainly not made of photons, like the electric field. My thinking of course is that it is made of gravity – standing wave patterns in space that make it possible for these varying mass electrons to  communicate (feel force) from other electrons and particles operating at the same (super high 10^50Hz) frequencies.

Could this potential, if its real, be Dark Energy?


— Tom Andersen


See also


Feynman, R. The Feynman Lectures on Physics 2. pp. 15–5. “knowledge of the classical electromagnetic field acting locally on a particle is not sufficient to predict its quantum-mechanical behavior. and …is the vector potential a “real” field? … a real field is a mathematical device for avoiding the idea of action at a distance. …. for a long time it was believed that A was not a “real” field. …. there are phenomena involving quantum mechanics which show that in fact A is a “real” field in the sense that we have defined it….. E and B are slowly disappearing from the modern expression of physical laws; they are being replaced by A [the vector potential] and \varphi[the scalar potential]

According to the accepted theories of physics, this question is not in good taste. An electron is described by charge, mass, and a few other parameters. But there are no ‘whys’. Why do electrons have a charge of 1? or a mass of 0.511 MeV? No one knows. Most physicists will not think or worry about this.

There are lots of theories about electron substructure out there. Here is mine.

The electron is a knot, pattern, or whirligig built of ‘standard general relativity’.

How could this possibly work? I really don’t have all the answers – or even all the questions yet, but there are some details that I want to share.

Basically, an electron is a construction of GR, where (here is the leap of faith part) the mass of the electron varies in an even sine wave cycle at an enormous frequency – 10^60 Hz or so. This ‘varying mass’ creates monopole gravitational radiation. The net effect is that there are forces between neighbouring electrons that scale in strength with the frequency of this pulsating mass.

Example Detail
So how could something like charge be generated by classical general relativity? Gravity is 10^42 or some factor like that weaker than the electrostatic force. It turns out to be not all that hard to accomplish, at least in broad strokes. Basically the frequency of the varying mass creates via the slope of the gravitational potential, a net force on any neighbouring similar structure that also has a varying mass.

General Thesis?

First this: General Relativity alone is sufficient to create a pretty complex interacting world of ‘stuff’. I guess almost anyone would agree with this statement, as a fictional universe built of rotating, coalescing black holes has plenty of interaction, energy exchange, and other qualities. But it is not this world.

My theory, however strange it may sound is exactly that -we are living in a world described only by GR. All the interactions, fields, quantum phenomena and the rest can ultimately be described via plain old General Relativity. Plain except for the massively interconnected topology.

This is not an ‘end of physics’ argument, for if my theory is ‘true’ all I think it means is that we have found a new problem set – GR is not easily solvable, linear or predictable. In other words, a GR – only universe can be ‘almost anything’ according to the math – it may mean that new theories as important and different from the ‘base GR’ will be needed. Example: Cartesian – Newtonian space is the base for theories such as Newtonian Gravity, thermodynamics, etc. Common belief is that these theories are constructed using a Euclidian coordinate system as only a ‘part’ of the theory – it is my belief that, for instance, Newton’s Gravity does not so much use cartesian coordinates, as it is cartesian theory.