Electrons exist as small black hole – like things which turn on and off at huge frequencies, and Birchoffs theorem is used to create electrostatics (indeed electrodynamics) using nothing but monopole gravitational waves. (see previous post).

So there exists a field of vibrating humps of gravitational potential (a.k.a dark energy or dark matter?) that fills space. It is at rest in the universe, and forms a frame of reference – not really an ether, as relativity still works fine. More like the cosmic microwave background.

**Protons are different**

So electrons repulse each other. How do protons work?. They are massive, 2000 times heavier, and have a known size of about a fm (10^{-15} meters).

So given this hilly landscape of varying potential, is there any other way to get purchase? In other words how do you do what an electron does given that huge radius and 2000 times the mass?

The frequency of the field can be approximated in the following way:

Involve the two constants ‘G’ and ‘Q’. You get a frequency along the lines of 10^{65} Hz

for two electrons separated by d:

m_{e}^{2}G/(2d^{2})*K = Q^{2}/(4*pi*E*d^{2}),

where we know that K – the ratio of gravity to electric force on electrons is about 8.3×10^{42}. K is unitless. suppose K is actually w*r/c, where r is some nuclear radius. With an radius r of about a fm, we get a frequency of 10^{65} Hz. Another way to think of this is that the light travel time across a black hole the mass of an electron is also 10^{-65} seconds.

This huge frequency implies a wavelength of a tiny 10^{-57} meters. So in the diameter of a proton, we have 10^{42} waves. There are an incredible number of these waves boiling inside the proton.

The proton needs to ‘latch’ onto these waves, with the same force as an electron, but it does it in a completely different manner – it uses not a disappearing act, but some mechanism that keeps the mass elements of the proton preferentially in the wells – which has the same effect as the electron’s disappearing act, but much harder to achieve, and thus requires 2000 times the mass. In fact the proton only has to do things 1/2000 as well as an electron per unit mass – so the effect can be quite weak, (e.g. hit 2001 times and miss 2000 times).

So the proton uses a factory technique, where all the parts (how many.?) move around so as to be in the right place at the right time, slightly more often than not.

Why is the charge so balanced then? A question for another day.

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Its pretty obvious when one looks at the tremendous success of the quark model that protons are made of quarks. Quarks behave in weird ways, but its the simple arithmetic that maps a few kinds of quarks onto hundreds of observed particles that is its proof as an idea.

One of the weird things about quarks is the 1/3 charge – if charge is quantized (we only see whole numbers of charge in the wild) then how can something have 1/3 of a quantized value? More importantly – why exactly 1/3? In my theory this is explained by feedback – any more/less than 1/3 and bad things happen. (Or rather any more or less than 1 as an aggregate causes bad things to happe).

How do quarks work? Perhaps in a much more complicated way than electrons. Indeed, the binding energy of quarks to each other is greater than their rest mass, so there is some big machine in there, perhaps exchanging some gravitational waves (gluons) that are not long range. Perhaps charge arises from some phase effect of this dance, or put another way, perhaps there is another way to generate monopole waves by using some off band temporary storage i.e.: mass disappears temporarily – a quantum like effect driven by large scale gravitational waves.

“Loops, Trees and the Search for New Physics”

Zvi Bern, Lance J. Dixon & David A. Kosower

“More profoundly, the novel methods breathe new life into a unified theory that physicists left for dead in the 1980s. The force of gravity looks like two copies of the strong subnuclear interactions working in unison.”

So we have a theory that gravity looks the same as two copies of the string nuclear force. The authors of the paper suggest that “Even more remarkably, three gravitons interact just like two copies of three interacting gluons. This double -copy property appears to persist no matter how many particles are scattering or how many virtual particles are involved. It means that figuratively speaking, gravity is the square of the strong subnuclear reaction”.

In my terms we should look at this from the other way around – if two gluons look like gravity, then could it not be that gluons are made of gravity?