Thought experiment, that is…

Take a gravitational well created by any object. Simple Schwarzschild solution. There is a test particle at some distance r away from the source.

Now imagine that the source disappears. Really just ‘goes away’ – violating the conservation of stuff. (The source mass of course could be going away for a temporary time, quantum – style, or could be using a wormhole device to disappear – I’m not concerned here with the how or why this would happen).

The source disappears over a **short** time. (This would create a monopole gravitational wave).

There are two potential energies for the test mass – the potential energy when its in the well, and then the potential energy when the well is gone. The difference is of course just G*M_{s}M_{t}/r. During the disappearance of M_{s} (source mass) the total energy of the test particle would remain the same, so the kinetic energy of the test particle would rise as the PE tended to zero.

So that’s 1/2M_{t}V^{2} = GM_{s}M_{t}/r

V = sqrt(2GM_{s}/r) – the escape velocity – makes perfect sense. (it would be towards the place where M_{s} was, but everything here is talked about in such a short period of time that the test particle never gets to move much)…

So now, imagine that the source mass (M_{s}) appears again. If you left everything else alone, the test particle would of course slow back down and again be parked stationary in the potential well.

So lets change that. Say, in this world of disappearing masses, that now, in an act of symmetry, the test particle has taken *its* turn and has now ‘gone away’ during the re-inflation of M_{s}. So now you have M_{s} back, and the test particle magically appears in the well. Lets not worry about the energy needed to get back into the potential at this point.

Of course, now we are back at the initial conditions, and we repeat:

- M
_{s} – disappears.
- M
_{t} has a KE boost of the escape velocity.
- So M
_{t} is getting a KE boost of the escape velocity at each cycle.

In fact, repeat the whole process at about 10^{65} hz. (see this post for a calculation of this frequency) (2014 edit – Perhaps this frequency is way off… see May 2014).

Then you have the capability to produce an acceleration of 10^{42} TIMES the normal classical gravitational acceleration on an object. Take M_{s} and M_{t} to both be the mass of the lightest charged particle, the electron. In the example above, I guess one of the particles is a positron since there is a net attraction. Attraction vs repulsion is a phase thing here. If both particles disappear and re-appear at the same time (well with speed of light taken into account between them), then you would have repulsion.

**This is the source of the electric charge: the Coulomb field is a consequence of Gravity – a phenomenon, not a fundamental field.**

Obviously not a complete model at this point!

Here are some nice things about this:

- Obviously covariant, GR friendly (as long as you can stomach the varying mass thing).
- If correct, things like the Maxwell equations should drop out. That would be a telling feature.
- It forms a way to unify gravity with the other forces of nature.
- It does not use the well worn QFT as a starting point, which has never really amounted to much.

**Maxwell Equations**

We now have a coulomb strength field with repulsion and attraction (caused by different phase locking). This is set in a covariant GR framework. Maxwells equations can be determined from Coulomb’s law and Special Relativity : see for example this paper by

Richard E Haskell.
**Questions**:

- Why the phase lock?
- What about QED and its exact predictions?
- What is the mechanism that controls the mass swings?
- What about the ‘other’ properties of the electron – the gyromagnetic ratio, etc.
- Can this model be used for nuclear forces as well?
- What about quantum effects? Can time and energy be used at these scales?

**Hints to answers**:

- Perhaps phase lock is the wrong way to think about the interaction, and something more like QED provides a better way to think about repulsion vs attraction, etc.
- QED is modeled with the exchange of precisely timed phase clocks – the physical model of this may be the pulse exchanges outlined above.
- General Relativity does not tell us how space is connected. It may not be simply connected.
- The gyromagnetic ratio of the electron can be found to be 2 from several papers on gravitational models of the electron – those papers assume a classical model for charge, but still may hold. The extremely high frequency of this effect means that on a scale of even femtoseconds we have 10
^{28} oscillations – likely can ignore many effects, and again treat the electon as if it has a classical charge.
- Nuclear forces may be a result of real, actual, particles interacting at distances close enough that non – linear effects and the full theory of General Relativity need to be taken into account. Perhaps get numerical relativists to work on this.
- Quantum mechanics may be a
*phenomenon* of a multiply connected GR universe, with all the fast clocks and wormhole like behaviour providing enough room to create a (now extant) hidden variables theory of QM.
- Perhaps the Proton participates in this dance with a much more complicated set of machinery – and is – say not multiply connected, or has a different structure, etc.

Obviously a big pill to swallow. But it does head down the road to integrating the forces of nature.

Tom Andersen

Meaford, On Canada

October 16, 2011 (with personal notes from 1995 – 2011)