Archives For electron

The title about says it.

I have been thinking and reading a little about the electromagnetic potential and it gauge invariance lately. In simple, but absolutely correct terms, you can think of Gauge Invariance like this:

Electrons only respond to the slope of the voltage potential, and not the absolute value. So if you take any circuit, experiment, etc, planet, etc and add a million volts everywhere, no one will be able to tell, except people who look in from outside the circuit or planet.

This fact led physicists to renounce the potential as something real, and instead pronounce it as only a mathematical tool, useful for getting the field, which is the ‘real thing’. So in other words, ‘Voltage is not real’. Sure feels real to me when I get a shock from static or touching the wrong wire! But physics says its the potential difference that matters, and not the potential iteself. Point taken.

Then along comes the Aharonov-Bohm Effect (David Bohm is one of my heroes in physics). It describes an experiment where electrons can detect a change in the potential – where the changes result in no fields. In other words it seems that electrons can see this potential. To me, this is a sign that this potential is real. To others of course, its not.

Richard Feynman seemed to think more along the lines of the ‘potential is real’ camp.

So if its real, what gauge did nature choose? In other words what is the voltage of the universe? I of course don’t know, but if we assume that there is some real fixed gauge, then what could be the consequences?

1) No consequences for local experiments, etc.

2) Perhaps there are things on a larger scale that do arise from this permeating ‘potential’ everywhere. Could this potential (i.e. voltage) be real in the sense that it is made out of something? That is the crux. Its certainly not made of photons, like the electric field. My thinking of course is that it is made of gravity – standing wave patterns in space that make it possible for these varying mass electrons to  communicate (feel force) from other electrons and particles operating at the same (super high 10^50Hz) frequencies.

Could this potential, if its real, be Dark Energy?


— Tom Andersen


See also


Feynman, R. The Feynman Lectures on Physics 2. pp. 15–5. “knowledge of the classical electromagnetic field acting locally on a particle is not sufficient to predict its quantum-mechanical behavior. and …is the vector potential a “real” field? … a real field is a mathematical device for avoiding the idea of action at a distance. …. for a long time it was believed that A was not a “real” field. …. there are phenomena involving quantum mechanics which show that in fact A is a “real” field in the sense that we have defined it….. E and B are slowly disappearing from the modern expression of physical laws; they are being replaced by A [the vector potential] and \varphi[the scalar potential]

I will show with a few simple equations how it could be that electrons and electromagnetic theory can be constructed from GR alone.

1) The electron is some sort of GR knot, wormhole or other ‘thing’, which has one property – its mass is moving from 0 to 2*me in a wave pattern. Well actually, the mass does not have to all b oscillating, it only changes the math slightly.

2) Due to the birkhoff theorem, the gravitational potential at any time is given by the amount of mass inside a certain radius.

3) Due to 2) above, we can use the simple gravitational formula to describe the potential.

\Phi(r,t)=2\frac{m_eG}{r}sin(\omega t)

This potential exerts a force that depends on the frequency of the varying mass, taking the derivative to get the slope of the potential holding r steady:

\frac{\partial}{\partial t}\Phi(r,t)=2\omega\frac{m_eG}{r}cos(\omega t)

With the mass changing, we have monopole graviational waves emanating (and incoming, since the universe is not empty), from such a structure.

The big assumption here is of course the varying mass of the electron. Where does the mass go? The obvious answer is through some sort of wormhole, so perhaps there is another electron somewhere else with the opposite phase of mass. Shades of the Pauli exclusion principle.

There are lots of places on the internet where one can find electron models where the the electron is modeled on some standing wave, which is what this really amounts to, since electrons would have a huge force on them if the incoming and outgoing are not balanced.

According to the accepted theories of physics, this question is not in good taste. An electron is described by charge, mass, and a few other parameters. But there are no ‘whys’. Why do electrons have a charge of 1? or a mass of 0.511 MeV? No one knows. Most physicists will not think or worry about this.

There are lots of theories about electron substructure out there. Here is mine.

The electron is a knot, pattern, or whirligig built of ‘standard general relativity’.

How could this possibly work? I really don’t have all the answers – or even all the questions yet, but there are some details that I want to share.

Basically, an electron is a construction of GR, where (here is the leap of faith part) the mass of the electron varies in an even sine wave cycle at an enormous frequency – 10^60 Hz or so. This ‘varying mass’ creates monopole gravitational radiation. The net effect is that there are forces between neighbouring electrons that scale in strength with the frequency of this pulsating mass.

Example Detail
So how could something like charge be generated by classical general relativity? Gravity is 10^42 or some factor like that weaker than the electrostatic force. It turns out to be not all that hard to accomplish, at least in broad strokes. Basically the frequency of the varying mass creates via the slope of the gravitational potential, a net force on any neighbouring similar structure that also has a varying mass.

General Thesis?

First this: General Relativity alone is sufficient to create a pretty complex interacting world of ‘stuff’. I guess almost anyone would agree with this statement, as a fictional universe built of rotating, coalescing black holes has plenty of interaction, energy exchange, and other qualities. But it is not this world.

My theory, however strange it may sound is exactly that -we are living in a world described only by GR. All the interactions, fields, quantum phenomena and the rest can ultimately be described via plain old General Relativity. Plain except for the massively interconnected topology.

This is not an ‘end of physics’ argument, for if my theory is ‘true’ all I think it means is that we have found a new problem set – GR is not easily solvable, linear or predictable. In other words, a GR – only universe can be ‘almost anything’ according to the math – it may mean that new theories as important and different from the ‘base GR’ will be needed. Example: Cartesian – Newtonian space is the base for theories such as Newtonian Gravity, thermodynamics, etc. Common belief is that these theories are constructed using a Euclidian coordinate system as only a ‘part’ of the theory – it is my belief that, for instance, Newton’s Gravity does not so much use cartesian coordinates, as it is cartesian theory.