Electrons exist as small black hole – like things which turn on and off at huge frequencies, and Birchoffs theorem is used to create electrostatics (indeed electrodynamics) using nothing but monopole gravitational waves. (see previous post).

So there exists a field of vibrating humps of gravitational potential (a.k.a dark energy or dark matter?) that fills space. It is at rest in the universe, and forms a frame of reference – not really an ether, as relativity still works fine. More like the cosmic microwave background.

**Protons are different**

So electrons repulse each other. How do protons work?. They are massive, 2000 times heavier, and have a known size of about a fm (10^{-15} meters).

So given this hilly landscape of varying potential, is there any other way to get purchase? In other words how do you do what an electron does given that huge radius and 2000 times the mass?

The frequency of the field can be approximated in the following way:

Involve the two constants ‘G’ and ‘Q’. You get a frequency along the lines of 10^{65} Hz

for two electrons separated by d:

m_{e}^{2}G/(2d^{2})*K = Q^{2}/(4*pi*E*d^{2}),

where we know that K – the ratio of gravity to electric force on electrons is about 8.3×10^{42}. K is unitless. suppose K is actually w*r/c, where r is some nuclear radius. With an radius r of about a fm, we get a frequency of 10^{65} Hz. Another way to think of this is that the light travel time across a black hole the mass of an electron is also 10^{-65} seconds.

This huge frequency implies a wavelength of a tiny 10^{-57} meters. So in the diameter of a proton, we have 10^{42} waves. There are an incredible number of these waves boiling inside the proton.

The proton needs to ‘latch’ onto these waves, with the same force as an electron, but it does it in a completely different manner – it uses not a disappearing act, but some mechanism that keeps the mass elements of the proton preferentially in the wells – which has the same effect as the electron’s disappearing act, but much harder to achieve, and thus requires 2000 times the mass. In fact the proton only has to do things 1/2000 as well as an electron per unit mass – so the effect can be quite weak, (e.g. hit 2001 times and miss 2000 times).

So the proton uses a factory technique, where all the parts (how many.?) move around so as to be in the right place at the right time, slightly more often than not.

Why is the charge so balanced then? A question for another day.