The Structure of Spacetime

December 2, 2018 — Leave a comment

as revealed by J.S. Bell and experimental results.

Consider the following facts.

  1. The experimental record shows that the Lorentz transformations and special and general relativity all work remarkably well, from galaxies and indeed the structure of the Universe on down to scales probed by CERN. 
  2. Locality is demonstrated in virtually all experiments conducted to date. This holds across fields such as fluid dynamics, radiation fields, etc. We have local causality.
  3. Quantum experiments such as those done by Aspect and later show that not everything is local – we have non-local effects. The wavefunction collapse is instant, etc. This worried Einstein.

Given the above facts, the simplest spacetime I can come up with looks roughly like this:

Spacetime is the usual 4D smooth(ish) playground, with the addition of some sort of ER Bridge connecting places. These bridges seem to transfer only what’s needed for the nonlocality of quantum mechanics. “holds most physics” refers to the overwhelming larger apparently simply connected spacetime in which we live. The tiny ER bridges are perhaps some relic, and are likely needed for particle structure as well. 

So this spacetime, which is not new, ( Wheeler had similar ideas), seems to cover our knowledge about the logical structure of quantum mechanics and general relativity. Until someone comes up with something better, this is what I use. 

Causality vs locality vs non-signalling

  • Spacetime is locally casual. Einsteins equations show us how things need to touch (with light or gravity waves, etc) in order to interact. 
  • Locality is therefore local in nature only. 
  • non-signalling holds today, but there seems to be no reason for it. We have a connection, we just need to figure out how to use it. 
  • Spacetime is multiply connected, which means it is not globally localized. Events can interact outside of their past light cones. 

Conclusion

This is how our universe operates: we feel everything locally causal. But experiment shows some non-local (in the global sense) connections. 


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